Butambala District is bordered by Gomba District to the west and northwest, Mityana District to the northeast, Mpigi District to the east and south and Kalungu District to the southwest. The district headquarters at Gombe, are located approximately 31 kilometres (19 mi), by road, west of the town of Mpigi, the largest metropolitan area in the sub-region. This location is approximately 68 kilometres (42 mi), by road, southwest of Kampala, Uganda’s capital and largest city. The coordinates of the district are:00 12N, 32 06E.
Butambala District is one of the newest districts in Uganda. Created by act of parliament, the district became operational on 1 July 2010, having been split off of Mpigi District, together with neighboring Gomba District. Prior to becoming a full-fledged district, Butambala was Butambala County, one of the eighteen counties that constitute the Kingdom of Buganda.
In 2002, the population of Butambala District was estimated at about 86,600. In 2010, the district population was estimated at about 98,200.